An MPA in the Ross Sea was initially proposed in 2012, by both the United States and New Zealand. These proposals were then revised as a joint proposal and discussed at the Bremerhaven Special Session in 2013, prior to the CCAMLR Annual Meeting in the same year. This was followed by a period of scientific and diplomatic discussions that culminated in 2016 in the CCAMLR Agreement on the Ross Sea Region (MPA) (RSRMPA); the MPA entered into force on 1 December 2017. “It took five years to talk exclusively about this one proposal to put it on the table. And if you look at other marine protected areas that are permanent, they are in an exclusive economic zone — it`s just a country that has to make the decision. “New Zealand has played a leading role in achieving this agreement, which contributes significantly to global maritime protection. The EU and 24 countries sign a long-awaited agreement on the protection of 1.1 m² of water in the Southern Ocean, to ensure that younger fish are caught less The agreement also sets up a large “krill research area” of 322,000 square kilometers, allowing the capture of Krill but prohibiting fishing for toothfish. In addition, a “special research area” of 110,000 km² will be set up outside the no-catch zone, allowing the capture of krill and dental fish solely for research purposes. The cellar ditches are filled with reef sediments of uncertain character and age.  A widespread irregularity has been cut in the subsoil and the filling of sediments in large basins.   Above this great inconformity (called RSU-6), are a series of glacial marine sedimentary units deposited during several fore and back of the Antarctic ice sheet over the seabed of the Ross Sea during the Oligozene and later.  The first MPA in the Southern Ocean was agreed in 2009 south of the South Orkney Islands and the United Kingdom, as the requesting state, was a visible supporter of the initiative. It was the first MPA on the high seas in the world and obtained the agreement of other parts of the CCAMLR, as it was relatively small (94,000 square kilometers) and did not intervene in the commercial interests of the fisheries of countries like Russia.
New Zealand, another complaining State, was an active supporter of the commercial development of fishing in the Ross Sea in the 1990s. It is therefore too easy to characterize any disagreement on the MPA`s proposals for the Southern Ocean as a conservation and fisheries state. “Negotiations on the MPA began in 2012 and New Zealand would like to thank all parties for coming together to reach an agreement that protects one of the few remaining intact natural environments in the world,” says McCully. What all the LSMPA and fishing moratoriums show is that there is a delicate and sometimes unpleasant balance between the sovereign rights of coastal states and extraterritorial parties, especially when the waters concerned are international (CAO and Rossmeer). . . .