The receipt of the agreement in the House of Commons ranged from fresh to hostile and the vote was delayed by more than a month. Prime Minister May won a no-confidence motion against her own party, but the EU refused to accept further changes. The agreement also provides for a transitional period that will last until 31 December 2020 and may be extended by mutual agreement. During the transition period, EU legislation remains applicable to the UK (including participation in the European Economic Area, the internal market and the customs union) and the UK will continue to contribute to the EU budget, but the UK will not be represented in EU decision-making bodies. The transition period will give businesses time to adjust to the new situation and the UK and EU governments to negotiate a new EU-UK trade deal. [17] [18] The 2019 revisions also adapted elements of the political declaration and replaced the word “appropriate” with “appropriate” with respect to labour standards. According to Sam Lowe, a fellow at the Centre for European Reform, the amendment excludes labour standards from dispute settlement mechanisms. [27] In addition, the mechanism for a level playing field has been moved from the legally binding Withdrawal Agreement to the Political Declaration[24] and the line in the Political Declaration that “the UK will consider aligning itself with EU legislation in relevant areas” has been deleted. [26] The EU and the UK reached an agreement on the Withdrawal Agreement, with a revised protocol on Ireland and Northern Ireland (removal of the backstop) and a revised political declaration. On the same day, the European Council (Article 50) approved these texts. The agreement covers issues such as money, citizens` rights, border settlement and dispute settlement.

It also contains a transition period and an overview of the future relationship between the UK and the EU. It was published on 14 November 2018 and was the result of the Brexit negotiations. The agreement was approved by the heads of state and government of the remaining 27 EU countries[9] and by the British government led by Prime Minister Theresa May, but it met with opposition from the British Parliament, whose approval was required for ratification. The consent of the European Parliament would also have been necessary. On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons rejected the Withdrawal Agreement by 432 votes to 202. [10] On March 12, 2019, the House of Commons again rejected the agreement by 391 votes to 242,[11] and rejected a third time on March 29, 2019 by 344 votes to 286. On 22 October 2019, the revised withdrawal agreement negotiated by the Boris Johnson government opened the first stage in Parliament, but Johnson suspended the legislative process when the accelerated authorisation programme did not receive the necessary support and announced his intention to proclaim a general election. [12] On 23 January 2020, Parliament ratified the agreement by adopting the Withdrawal Agreement. On 29 January 2020, the European Parliament approved the Withdrawal Agreement. It was then closed by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020. 7.Add to Section 78 – Safeguard measures of the EU Withdrawal Agreement.

The main elements of the draft agreement are:[21] The new Political Declaration sets the framework for the future relationship between the European Union and the United Kingdom and reflects the government`s desire to conclude an ambitious, broad, deep and flexible partnership in the field of trade and economic cooperation with the EU, with a focus on a free trade agreement with the EU. in addition to security agreements and other areas of cooperation. .